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Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed. It is to be added, also, that all the references to him occur in the Canterbury Tales. This gives, of course, no indication of Chaucer's inde- pendent reading, since the quotations all go back ultimately to Albertano of Brescia's Liber Consolationis et Consilii (1246), but it exhibits a typical mediaeval situation which Chaucer unhesi- tatingly accepted. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world. Outside of that work the name of Seneca does not appear, and it is doubtful if a single passage in the other poems can be traced to him with any certainty." The last statement must no longer go unchal- lenged, and it is the business of the present paper to show that Chaucer's acquaintance with Seneca outside the Canterbury Tales (in the Troilus, to be specific) is considerable. 7 First of all, I wish to lay a ghost which walks where it is likely to cause, and has already caused, some trouble. Wells, in his excellent Manual of the Writings in Middle English, p. In the Meliboeus some twenty quotations are expressly ascribed to Seneca. Tyr- whitt noted the following parallel : Senek seith eek a good word doutelees ; He seith, he can no difference finde Betwix a man that is out of his minde And a man which that is dronkelewe, But that woodnesse, y-fallen in a shrewe, Persevereth lenger than doth dronkenesse. Wei can Senek, and many a philosophre Biwailen tyme, more than gold in cofre. Troilus, IV, 1283, " For tyme y-lost may not recovered be " ; also delyces loco numeremus, non hominum, vyces. I am convinced that Chaucer got something from Seneca, as well as from the others. (D 1183-90.) Skeat has a good note on this referring to Epistle, 2, 4, which is clearly the source: ' honesta ' inquit (i. The latter form is found twice in rhyme (111, 494). This shows that at least in the dialect of the copyist -nt was probably not pronounced. " For los of catel may recovered be, But los of tyme shendeth us," quod he. The Senecan influence appears in the full and positive form in which Chaucer casts the thought, colored in him, of course, by Christian phrase- ology, that the practice of virtue is open to all, and that the practice of virtue, regardless of one's station in life, is the immediate and the only source of true nobility ("gentilesse"). e., Epicurus) 1 res est laeta paupertas ' ilia, vero non est paupertas, si laeta est. In ABH the initial vowels (Eu) of the name form but one syllable, whereas in O they count as two. abeis instead of dbes is proved by the versification. Public domain books are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. Douglas Bruce 377 La Bella Mono di Giusto de' Conti. cui Hens ne Puet celer = " From whom nothing can be hidden." The reflex, pronoun is omitted or else celer is used as a neuter verb. In Pohme Moral, -oi and -oie are both frequently found and both forms are proved by the verse.
T„ E 1376, I 467, Chaucer quotes Seneca where his authority turns out to be portions of the Liber Consolationis not used in the Meliboeus. Wherf ore I rede, do right so with thy cherl, as thou woldest that thy lord dide with thee, if thou were in his plyt. I rede thee, certes, that thou, lord, werke in swich wyse with thy cherles, that they rather love thee than drede. On account of the lack of con- nection between 721 and 722, it seems likely that there may have been a verse between them in the original poem. Two sentences Chaucer ascribes to Seneca as he finds them in his source, represented by the Summa Casuum Poenitentiae of Raymund of Pennaforte, though Raymund gives the second of them (in his text the first) merely to Philosophus: "And lo, what seith Seneca in this matere. Vita: quis putas lupus agnam meant dissipavitt 717. He seith thus : ' Though I wiste that neither god ne man ne sholde nevere knowe it, yet wolde I have desdayne for to do sinne.'/ And the same Seneca also seith : *■ I am born to do gretter thinges than to be thral to my body, or than for to maken of my body a thral.' " 9 (I, 144 f.) But in another pas- 8 One of these, 1. There is nothing that I have found corresponding precisely to this Digitized by 4 The Romanic Review sage in the Parson's Tale we seem to have Chaucer's independent and first-hand adaptation of Senecan thought. The / is inserted in desturblier, perhaps by analogy with trobler [turbulare], 722. (I 761 ff.) vis tu cogitare istum, quern ser- vum tuum vocas, ex isdem semi- nibus ortum, eodem frui caelo, aeque spirare, aeque vivere, aeque mori. Note that in the next line Chaucer says that humble folk "been contubemial with the lord" (I 760). The rest of the parallels above, except the last, which Skeat also notes, I am responsible for. "The substitution of the name Stilbo for Chilon, a few lines further on (603), may have been suggested to him by his reading in the Epistles (9, 18-19; 10, 1). (47, 10.) sic cum inferiore vivas, quem- admodum tecum superiorem velis vivere. ostende, quis non sit: alius libi- dine servit, alius avaritiae, etc. (I7-) Assuredly, someone, Chaucer or another, has here been reading Seneca, not merely culling a posy from a florilegium; that it is Chaucer and not another we should perhaps prefer to leave unde- cided until we have more evidence. Digitized by Chaucer and Seneca 5 losopher rebuked by the child he is about to punish, which bears a resemblance to a story told of Socrates by Seneca in De Ira, I, 15, But this I pass over as not likely to yield anything to our present purpose, and with it the three exemplary anecdotes in the Somnour's Tale (D 2017 ff.) which are also told in De Ira. This I feel sure I have seen somewhere noted, but cannot recall where. Lowes, Chaucer and Dante's Convivio, Modern Philology, XIII, 19-33 (May, 1915) ; Bernard L. Foerster, Yvain, small ed., 4327 n., Guillaume d'Angleterre, 588 n., Erec, 119 n., Charrette, 5685 n.